Optimization of the extraction of natural phenolic antioxidants from the seeds of Tamarindus indica L. - an undervalued by product of food processing - using response surface methodology

Main Article Content

Atreyi Sarkar
Uma Ghosh


The seeds of Tamarindus indica are known to possess a wide range of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity as measured by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). In the present study, the optimum conditions for the extraction of crude phenolic antioxidants from Tamarind seed were determined using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design (CCD) was used to investigate the effects of four independent variables, namely concentration of extractable solids in solvent (g/ml; X1), extraction time (h; X2), extraction temperature (°C; X3) and solvent concentration (%, v/v; X4) on the responses of total polyphenol content (TPC) and FRAP. The CCD consisted of 30 experimental runs. A second-order polynomial model was used for predicting the responses. Canonical analysis of the surface responses revealed that the predicted optimal conditions for the maximal yield of TPC and FRAP were concentration of extractable solids in solvent of 0.049 g/ml, extraction time of 3.24 h, extraction temperature of 45 °C and a solvent concentration of 50%. The experimental values in the optimised condition coincided with the predicted ones within a 95% confidence interval, hence indicating the suitability of the model and the success of RSM in optimizing the extraction parameters.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sarkar, A. and Ghosh, U. (2018) “Optimization of the extraction of natural phenolic antioxidants from the seeds of Tamarindus indica L. - an undervalued by product of food processing - using response surface methodology”, Acta Biologica Szegediensis, 62(1), pp. 67–74. doi: 10.14232/abs.2018.1.67-74.


Akowuah GA, Ismail, Z, Norhayati I, Sadikun A (2005) The effects of different extraction solvents of varying polarities on polyphenols of Orthosiphon stamineus and evaluation of the free radical-scavenging activity. Food Chem 93(2):311-317.

Anderson MJ, Whitcomb PJ (2016) RSM Simplified: Optimizing Processes Using Response Surface Methods for Design of Experiments, Special Indian ed. Taylor & Francis Group, New York.

Benzie IFF, Strain JJ (1996) The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of ‘‘antioxidant power”: The FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 239:70-76.

Cacace JE, Mazza G (2003) Mass transfer process during extraction of phenolic compounds from milled berries. J Food Eng 59(4):379-389.

Clay KL, Murphy RC, Watrins WD (1975) Experimental methanol toxicity in the primate: analysis of metabolic acidosis. Toxicol Appl Pharm 34(1):49-61.

Herodež ŠS, Hadolin M, Škerget M, Knez Ž (2003) Solvent extraction study of antioxidants from Balm (Melissa officinalis L.) leaves. Food Chem 80(2):275-282.

Ju ZY, Howard LR (2003) Effects of solvent and temperature on pressurised liquid extraction of anthocyanins and total phenolics from dried red grape skin. J Agric Food Chem 51:5207-5213.

Kiassos E, Mylonaki S, Makris DP, Kefalas P (2009). Implementation of response surface methodology to optimise extraction of onion (Allium cepa) solid waste phenolics. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 10:246-252.

Laroze LE, Díaz-Reinoso B, Moure A, Zúñiga ME, Domínguez H (2010) Extraction of antioxidants from several berries pressing wastes using conventional and supercritical solvents. Eur Food Res Technol 231(5):669-677.

Liyana-Parthirana C, Shahidi F (2005) Optimisation of extraction of phenolic compounds from wheat using response surface methodology. Food Chem 93:47-56.

MacFaul PA, Ingold KU, Lusztyk J (1996) Kinetic solvent effects on hydrogen atom abstraction from phenol, aniline, and diphenylamine. The importance of hydrogen bonding on their radical-trapping (antioxidant) activities. J Org Chem 61(4):1316-1321.

Malik CP, Singh MB (1980) Plant Enzymology and Histoenzymology. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, India.

McMartin KE, Ambre JJ, Tephly TR (1980) Methanol poisoning in human subjects: role for formic acid accumulation in the metabolic acidosis. Am J Med 68(3):414-418.

Nakchat O, Meksuriyen D, Pongsamart S (2014) Antioxidant and anti lipid peroxidation activities of Tamarindus indica seed coat in human fibroblast cells Indian J Exp Biol 52:125-132.

Pinelo M, Rubilar M, Jerez M, Sineiro J, Núñez MJ (2005) Effect of solvent, temperature, and solvent-to-solid ratio on the total phenolic content and antiradical activity of extracts from different components of grape pomace. J Agri Food Chem 53(6):2111-2117.

Pompeu DR, Silva EM, Rogez H (2009) Optimisation of the solvent extraction of phenolic antioxidants from fruits of Euterpe oleracea using Response Surface Methodology. Biores Technol 100:6076-6082.

Sarkar A, Ghosh U (2016) Classical single factor optimisation of parameters for phenolic antioxidant extraction from tamarind seed (Tamarindus indica). Plant Sci Today 3(3):258-266.

Spigno G, Tramell L, De Faveri DM (2007) Effects of extraction time, temperature and solvent on concentration and antioxidant activity of grape marc phenolics. J Food Eng 81(1):200-208.

Sudjaroen Y, Haubner R, Würtele G, Hull WE, Erben G, Spiegelhalder B, Owen RW (2005) Isolation and structure elucidation of phenolic antioxidants from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds and pericarp. Food Chem Toxicol 43(11):1673-1682.

Treybal RE (1981) Mass-transfer Operations, 4th ed. McGraw-Hill International Editions, Singapore.

Tsuda T, Mizuno K, Ohshima K, Kawakishi S, Osawa T (1995) Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of antioxidative components from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat. J Agri Food Chem 43(11):2803-2806.

Turkmen N, Sari F, Velioglu YS (2006) Effects of extraction solvents on concentration and antioxidant activity of black and black mate tea polyphenols determined by ferrous tartrate and Folin-Ciocalteu methods. Food Chem 99(4):835-841.

Valgimigli L, Ingold KU, Lusztyk J (1996) Antioxidant activities of vitamin E analogues in water and a Kamlet-Taft β-value for water. J Am Chem Soc 118(15):3545-3549.

Yilmaz Y, Toledo RT (2006) Oxygen radical absorbance capacities of grape/wine industry by products and effect of solvent type on extraction of grape seed polyphenols. J Food Comp Anal 19(1):41-48.

Yu J, Ahmedna M, Goktepe I (2005) Effects of processing methods and extraction solvents on concentration and antioxidant activity of peanut skin phenolics. Food Chem 90(1):199-206.

Zhang ZS, Li D, Wang LJ, Ozkan N, Chen XD, Mao ZH, Yang HZ (2007) Optimization of ethanol-water extraction of lignans from flaxseed. Sep Purif Technol 57(1):17-24.